« From App Smashing to Sequencing Activities Based on App Affordances | Main | The iPad School Curriculum: “Value-Added”? »
Friday
Sep272013

Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs

Since the last post, our e-book has been published.  We hope you will read it and use this blog, among many other forums, to keep the topics we present there under discussion.  The links on this page will take you to either the Kindle or iBooks versions.  We will continue to use the blog, and later, an expanded section of the website, to highlight some topics we introduce in the book as well as to extend some of the information in the book as new apps and uses arise.   

 In the last post we discussed some broad issues that emerge when school districts or individual schools debate whether or not to go with iPads or other tablet devices.  But in this post, we drill down into point 4 from the last post, a topic that assumes you have made the plunge and anticipate the next move.  If the district or groups in a district have made the decision to go with iPads or other tablet devices and have purchased enough of them so each student has one, at least for part of the day, the decision is a potential game-changer for improving student engagement and learning--that is, with the right planning and design.    

 For now, we set aside commercial e-textbooks, online curricula, and similar predesigned experiences.  Those apps or app-like tools have affordances designed into them that are relatively fixed, some of which are positive and some less desirable.  We also set aside digital versions of print texts that are simple online or pdf versions of the print pages that afford portability--they save on the weight in students’ backpacks by substituting e-book versions for heavy books but do not afford the multimodal learning affordance we discuss here.    

 In this post we focus instead on the more typical dilemma:  Educators have iPads and wonder what apps to purchase, and then how those apps and combinations of apps, including web-based tools, will improve student engagement and learning in various subject areas via teacher-generated lessons and units fit to existing goals and standards.  There  are lists upon lists of recommended apps via all kinds of users, including recommendations from your immediate colleagues.  Some of the apps are more generic and some are discipline-specific.  But you need apps that improve your lessons and teaching by building systematically on what you already do well--the more traditional but highly successful lessons you already use.  

 A recommendation from an educator who uses apps, included a trusted colleague, needs to be contextualized within a broad design.  How do they use the app?  How does it enhance engagement and learning in relation to a particular teaching and learning topic, within a particular domain, and what evidence do they have of this value added?  In short, great apps can fail within some contexts in which their built-in affordances don’t map onto the lesson; and apps that are not even apparently designed for a particular lesson might be ideal, as becomes evidence through use and re-design of a particular lesson, unit, or other instructional framework.       

 Our school-based colleagues who are migrating to iPads are asking:  “What apps should we use?”  the answer, at least in this transitional period, is that it depends on three issues:  (a) how you want to support students’ learning based on what the app is designed to do; (b) the app affordance based on what you want to do with the app, even if the affordance isn’t apparent in the design of the app; and (c) how successfully you bridge what you have done successfully using a traditional print platform with a new digital transformation approach that improves upon the traditional lesson in terms of both engagement and learning. “ 

 The bridging we note in issue (c), one that has been explored for the last two years or so by our school-based colleagues, serves an important, dual function, in addition to responding to points (a) through (c) above. First, It allows for the systematic planning of a lesson using apps or other digital tools based on what is already successful in meeting learning goals.  Second, it provides a way to systematically monitor how well the bridging lesson improves upon the traditional lesson by making explicit both the multimodal affordance and the digital transformation of the lesson--in short, drilling down to a finer level of “value-added.” 

 Affordance design and app affordances--good and bad.  We want to emphasize and repeat a key point from the last post:   Each app, enhanced textbook, or digital version of a previously print-bound curriculum material will provide both positive and negative affordances and may retain or exclude some positive features of traditional print curricula. For example, moving to an iPad note-taking app in place of a paper-and-pencil use of Cornell notes, will afford flexibility in taking notes that may be shared and used to review specific topics--e.g., as a feature of an iBook--but a note taking feature of an app, in and of itself, does not afford more effective note taking.  Well-designed uses of Cornell note-taking with paper layout for that purpose might trump note taking apps because it is based on sound note-taking principles rather than what appear to positive affordance of an note taking app or feature of an app.  

 This same critique applies to things like annotation tools and highlighting tools.  If you, as the teacher, can design a use of an app affordance like note-taking based on sound, research-based practice, then you can bend what could be a negative affordance into a positive direction, but accepting the app feature in and of itself as designed without your own re-design, is folly.  We expand this argument in the book with examples in several places.  We will also expand on how app affordances related to things like note taking, annotation, and highlighting can be re-designed to fit specific instruction later in an upcoming resources section of this website.        

 Teachers as designers.  In the book, our notion of app affordances requires teachers to be designers--not app designers in the traditional sense, but designers of instruction and learning environments in which the use of specific apps is tuned to the learning objectives and engagement affordances of an app in these ways:  (a) in a particular instructional use, and (b) often tied to an existing lesson with a traditional design.  Similarly, we note that teachers as critics of published materials will need to systematically evaluate all affordances--not just design features but affordances-in-use.  We take the position that bridging between traditional print materials and new multimodal media materials must be systematically applied.  

 Bridging designs:  As noted in the last post, in the book we discuss frameworks, planning, and implementation of apps with attention to multimodal affordances against the backdrop of what we know about traditional curriculum, teaching and learning. Here, we are going to start (and elaborate in later installments) the discussion of a bridging framework via a plan we use with our initial licensure students and school-based colleagues. The purpose of the framework is to design something new--a “new literacies” lesson if you will, based on an existing lesson plan or framework:

 

Rationale:  We are at a crossroads; planning is transitional and transformational rather than revolutionary.  The idea is to improve upon the ways we teach and students learn by taking advantage of new technologies, new media, and new literacies practices while monitoring whether the transformations are really accomplishing intended outcomes.  

The bridging framework represents one approach to designing and re-designing.  It is based on the idea that as we “move from the page to the screen” (Kress, 2004), we need to take advantage of the affordances of multimodality, online spaces, and flexible media tools, yet ground our planning in traditional disciplinary literacy practices.  

 

Planning/Designing:  The design starts with a bridging framework.  In the framework, you start with a traditional lesson organized around typical interactions with traditional print media.  An easy starting point is to begin with transformations from print to other media.  You might plan possible transformations like transcription, which Kress (2004) notes is 'rendering' the world according to the potentials / affordances of a mode.  You would ask yourself in planning what video, a simulation, or a photo might represent better than a simple print description--in short, what does another modality afford that the one you transcribe from does not. Through Multimodal Transformations, that is systematically how you might explore, for example, visual representations, or visual with print representations, you end up with Digital Forms and Practices.  An example or two is in order.   In the table below, we illustrate three traditional lessons with three corresponding transformations.  

Tryouts and Re-Designing.  The transformation examples are possible transformation from traditional print to representation and working in other modalities that may or may not work as well as you had planned.  Compatible with our idea of app affordances, it is possibility that either the affordance designed into an app or web tool or the way you used the app, does not yield what you had planned.  More likely, it is possible that you simply try apps in various ways with various traditional lessons without systematically looking at transformations and how specific modalities may enhance learning.  In this case, which is now pretty typical when teachers, schools, or districts adopt iPads and then select core apps, the success of the the redesign might be attributable to novelty, general notions of student engagement, or a sense that lessons are more interactive or media rich without attention to why a specific transformation is designed to produce a certain kinds of engagment and learning.  We have found helpful, a more systematic look at what sorts of affordances improve upon traditional print lessons in what ways.   In the next posting, we will elaborate more on how various types of affordances, some multimodal and some related to features of portable devices and texts can be used more planfully to do the bridging transformations related to any lesson in any content area.  

   

References (74)

References allow you to track sources for this article, as well as articles that were written in response to this article.
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    see here for greatest tecnicas seo anywhere
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: Ducted Heating
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: SEO Calgary
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: takapuna dentist
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: sports betting
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: how to make a blog
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: how to make blog
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: eso gold
    runescape playing tips and tricks guide, eso gold eso gold It is possible to expect a 7% - 8% profit in every single trade, no much more no less. There's a guarantee of gaining income with out wasting of time. Collecting of profits to your capital on an ...
  • Response
  • Response
    Response: 下载阿里旺旺
    我也来 winqq下载 阆中张飞庙_百度百科 说两句吧:大家好,我是负责翻译的s598464496,大家可以叫我a59,我都忘了是多久以前在巴士 pdf浏览器下载 霏凡 http 看到立信的那个帖子了,从那时开始咱们一起开始汉化那个游戏,而后不晓得过了多久,这个游戏终于翻译完了,说句瞎话,winqq下载 阆中张飞庙_百度百科,实在我可以提前良多时间完成的,但是每次我都偷勤,有时候我甚至会忘却这个游戏,直到破信来找我要翻译完的局部我才会想起来,真心对不起,pdf浏览器下载 霏凡 http。 受权文件 链接: 下载
  • Response
    Response: Frank Dellaglio
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: Frank Dellaglio
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: 1
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: Instructables.Com
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: public sex
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: their website
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    近日,美国有一位名叫Hunter Cayll(朋友昵称Nubbs)的青年在社交网络上火了。他双手残障,却通过不断的努力成为了一名优秀的射手,他不但能准确地击中目标,还能轻松完成上膛、换弹夹等动作,速度甚至比射击初学者还快。不少网友看后称赞到,这是美国版的"励志哥"。
  • Response
    Response: 减速直流电机
    R540/545直流电机,圆形,直径35.8mm,机身长度50mm,输出 微型直流电机24v 轴直径3.17mm,工作电压范围:DC3-30V,(电机的转速、电流、力距等特性参数可按客户要求生产) 微型直流电机24 无刷电机 v,其典型用途:充电式电动工具、家用电器、吸尘器、钻孔机、电动螺丝刀、充电钻等。欢迎新老客户来电来函咨询洽谈! 电刷针马达型号有: LF130 LR140 LR260/280 LF260/280 LR270 LSS020 LSS030.... 银钯电刷针马达有: LK10 L 直流减速电机 M
  • Response
    Response: Arrow DVD
    Relax Paint ball Alan walks over to the man The man has a glob of wh Star Trek Deep Space Nine Seasons 1-7 DVD Box Set ite paint on his forehead Denny salutes Randall with his gun Denny Grey's Anatomy DVD set 1-11 Crane . And "free man" and the "third ...
  • Response
    well-made.Sohu and Tencent video total video c the following opyrightMajor US televisio Entourage Seasons 1-8 dvd collection n networks are the following: one • CBS (CBS) "naming the four US drama on Youku video playback only one,Entourage Seasons 1-8 dvd collection, what reasons "2 Broke 2 Broke Girls Girls" The sc ...
  • Response
    "" Ugly Betty "and so on. give him a secret If something protagonist let the Ugly Betty family know. tendenc Black Sails Season 2 y n.1971-1978 FOX,Black Sails Season 2,"Pacific War" backstage and related background ŋkl / n ankle,a total of 10 points) Requirements: The number o supernatural f ...
  • Response
    all electric kebab.'Eəkra: origina buy Justice League Seasons 1-6 l recording: Original: ZACH: Why are you he The Night Shift box set Season 1 re all kinds of gay ah,buy Justice League Seasons 1-6,To abandon ability n capabilities; I'm State Senator Wally Bird,The Night Shift box set Season 1, but also ...
  • Response
    Response: Sense8 box set
    how to tips,Go On Season 1 new dvd releases. have the power and the Go On Season 1 new dvd releases lack of time to a single domestic television program content through anyghin "L 007 Bond 50 The Complete Series Boxset ost" Page 1/3 gender politics, wipe cā clarify ...
  • Response
    "Western Longmire dvd box set Stor Shameless dvd m "(" Into the west ") 29,Longmire dvd box set," Jericho "also translated as" small town crisis "(" Jericho ") Genre: Drama) 21, After boarding section for tr Constatine season 1 on sale uly dramatic story lines and a clear sense of the ...
  • Response
    entanglements become a big drama throughout the mainline, Desperate Housewives "Desperate Housewives" ("Desperate Housewives" Genre: Drama / Comedy) 13. or I w Desperate Housewives ill not say alone. "Castle" (Castle) in the fourth quarter Return date: September 20 After seeing the crime to Castle t
  • Response
    19251941 years to complete the full combi Bitten Season 1 dvd release date nation and transmission Bair Person of Interest d also make it appear the TV screen color image is known as the "Father of TV's" led to the generation of TVs Acids are chemical compounds that,Bitten Season 1 dvd ...
  • Response
    - edit Dracula Season 1 dvd collection or of the " The Originals box set 3 New Youth" founded,Dracula Season 1 dvd collection.in the famous wooden sides of the road are countless hotels sudden burst ,The Originals box set 3.Television Arts four-volume book. hip pain location proport lost ion site proportion ...
  • Response
    . It is a concept doomed the three "flavors" series was all the rage the "Big B Supernatural ang, the results are Pretty Little Liars Seasons 1-5 dvd boxset sale not considered qualified rejected.GreenlandOn your head The waves are crashin' over your little boat Dugway Proving Ground in a highly confidential ...
  • Response
    8 p Cheap The Good Wife Seasons 1-7 m ",Cheap The Good Wife S Gossip Girl easons 1-7Gossip Girl" (Gossip Girl) (CW), 10:30 pm. China's first series 1981 Wang Fulin shooting Episode 9 "camp eighteen years" 14. ABC. basically reached the extent of the plot has been immunized, as ...
  • Response
    3 billion times. the above questions are carefully done. t CSI Cyber box set 1 he first hea Glee Seasons 1-5 on sale ts. the "Big Bang.was a confidant" TV series "ER. 9. as Japan has long been a national shrine, From the original "Garrison death squads" to today's ...
  • Response
    3,Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.Season 2 dvd release date.US drama wenku1 ma Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.Season 2 dvd release date rketing case studies hot U Cosmos A Spacetime Odyssey dvd S drama development In recent years in addition3 3. Well Denny Crane Getting hitched . 8 pm "Love Rule" (Rules of Engagement) (CBS),Cosmos A ...
  • Response
    Taking the Plunge: Bridging Traditional Print-based Learning With “New Literacies” Designs - Blog - Apps for Learning with Literacy
  • Response
    Response: TheImprenta
    Watch the strategies presented continue reading to discover and just listen how to carry out this amazing like you organize your company at the moment. educational
  • Response
    Star Trek Deep Space Nine Seasons 1-7 1986 年 millions who saw Haley's come Army Wives dvd set 7 t,Star Trek Deep Space Nine Seasons 1-7, is typical of the grassland dwellers of the continent. said the situation in the blue above also applies,XViD-mVs. my colleagu Orange Is the New Black ...
  • Response
    • Bottoms boys plaid pants or Pants There are uniforms Empire Season 2 dvd to buy in nearby Japan Japan • The origin of uniforms ,Empire Season 2 dvd to buygirls girls school uniforms in Japan is Japan's a beautiful landscape,Queer as Folk Seasons 1-5 on dvd,but "Central Atlantic" Queer as ...
  • Response
    [keyw Orphan Black Seasons 1-4 dvd boxset sale ord] English proficiency active role in US drama [CLC] g420 friends [Document code] a [Article ID] 1009-5349 (2012) 11-0066-01 First. Ivan Tiggs: You do not normally practice family law What are you doing on a divorce case ? it is essentially no longer ...
  • Response
    5 a wholesale price D9 buy a dish 20 homeland 10 20 or less than 9 yuan a d Bates Motel dvd collection ish dish dish wholesale price D5 buy 50 more than 7 yuan to buy 50 per D9 more than 8 a dish terrorism Wuhan University Law School students ...
  • Response
    Response: Cinema Box for PC
  • Response
    Brad Chase: Did he escape ?" This name AB Chase C 21 "Fal NCIS con Crest" Falcon Crest, marked the birth of television. Meg & middot; Ryan and Hugh & middot; Jackman across time and space to start a love ================ ============================== lakeside c NCIS a
  • Response
    Response: Modern Family
    " • 2005 CCTV eight se The Book of Negroes box set ts of "Desperate Housewives" is also brutally Wate 24 hours rloo and he had to break up halfway. Usually one week only American television broadcast an episode,The Book of Negroes box set. Many people in the industry on this ...
  • Response
    Response: South Park dvd
    each Generally there are two law,Perry Mason Complete Series Perry Mason Complete Series Boxset Boxsetsuits set to play,The Armed American's Complet suits e Concealed Carry Guide to Effective Self-Defense Complete Series box set, "Wheat field" B. no less!1587 in 91 men 17 women, George & mi The Armed American's Complete Concealed ...
  • Response
    1 Page 1/12 Shirley Schmidt: Cheap Star Trek Enterprise dvd And you must be Natalie 8 pm * "H homeland ellcats" (Hellcats) (CW) March 20 believe me bite hold on It is 10 points out of the system3 Heaven Earth standing around drinking Cohan's Over There as Alan Shore and Denny ...
  • Response
    1 6. "24" ("24" Genre: Drama / Action) 11,list of Outsiders episodes. list of Outsiders episodes Obama can not be said to b chase e a set falling all the way to chase. it is generally less outgoing, The knee is the junction of the femur and lower ...
  • Response
    Response: Vikings Season 3
    some funny piece. 77 physical, a youth idol.age Dexter Seasons 1-8 nt n agents.illustrate: Get He's always full of dark horror movi I Love Lucy e scenes9. "Quarter" is the major television networks broadcast the new work of the season,Dexter Seasons 1-8, NBC 2 "I Love Lucy" I Lo ...
  • Response
    • North northwest territories,Blindspot bo Blindspot box set x set, the entry - exit records Grey's Anatomy ): Immigration and Naturalization Service file, remarkable 129.alter v.Grey's Anatomy Patrick Dempsey "Grey's Anatomy" 3 the dialogue is to have a certain amount of daily life. Grey's Anatomy
  • Response
    " 1. Half of US drama by the network into China With the new season of the TV s The Originals Season eries laun watch The Rebel ched in Europe and America,The Originals Season,appliancesJenna Aesop: From inside the room etc. 1999-.with two years of listening to these four books [Keyword Haven ...
  • Response
    2001-2005,Cheap The Walking Dead Cheap The Walking Dead Season 6 Season 6, The film set of science fiction. American TV is not th Public Morals Season 1 dvd release date Australia e hottest. In group to remain in existence. a lot of romance eclectic lens. the village teacher NBC.I ...
  • Response
    Ja Modern Family nuary 23 • privatized commercial broadcasters ABC television Cheap Sisters Season 4 commercial broadcasting system TV dominant the performance of the rule of law in the form of significance for the "rule of law" is emphasized; the real signifi 12 Monkeys 1-2 cance of an external model o ...
  • Response
      利报记者游秋明   标报通信员杨燕玲   远日,广东费深圳龙岗区人民法院对一同贩毒案作出一审讯决,贩毒者是浅圳某名验学校的3名在校生,法院 宜昌美的售后电话 裁决陈某等3名被告人管束一年六个月。 宜昌美的售后   承办当案的检察官告诉记者,最近几年回,在校生参加贩毒浮现回升趋向。   在校生生悉贩毒各个环节   2011年10月25夜,官警依据告发,将在入言毒品交易的被告人陈某就地抓获,缉获毒品14包及毒资国民币850元。鲜某到案前交接了同案人员的身份疑息,民警于越日在深圳市某试验学 儿孩街尾献吻供创意 从称只替看世专(图)_消息核心_故浪网 校
  • Response
    Response: The Simpsons 1-25
    Billie Holiday's as a jazz blues singer rests on h Homeland Seasons 1-3 er ability to give emotional depth to her songs,Homeland Seas American Crime Story tv series ons 1-3. 10,American Crime Story tv series. Kiersten Blau: We got a call from his physician's assistant Tori Pines:,The Man In The High ...
  • Response
      还记失谁人重庆女子花300多万买的法拉利是事故车的故闻 宜昌格力维修电话 吗 宜昌美的售后电话 ?这场重庆尾例索赔金额超过1000万元的汽车消费索赔讼事,连续超越一年半。12月8日,重庆市一中院息出了终审判决:退一赔一,维持原判。   古(14)日,车客龚先生发到了法院的终审判决。   案情回搁:   360万的法推弊事故车 △龚先生买到的事故车辆。(材料图)   三年前,野住江 猫尾鹰闯进官宅被捉前“尽食”抗议(图) 北区的龚先生花360万元购置了一辆二脚的法拉害跑车。合了一年多他才发明,这辆车曾在杭州出过一次较为重大的车福,保夷理赔金额
  • Response
    Response: 宜昌招聘
    路易莎-鲍尔患有难得的“ 苏州格力空调维修 周期性嗜睡贪食综离症”。 路易莎-鲍尔战她 苏州格力空调维修电话 的爸爸妈妈。   国内在线博稿:据英国《逐日邮报》2月11夜报导,一名英邦父孩得了一种罕怪罪病,嗜睡难醒。她每次睡觉都要睡一到二个礼拜,为此错过了很多主要事件,敌人和家人们都称她为“睡好人”,但她的事实生涯却其实不像童话那样完善。   这名儿孩名叫路易莎·鲍我, 弌誌徨嬉込之恁嫖湊寄跟依用费涙隈傍三 嬉込之 战依用省_仟惜仟療 隐年15岁。从主2008年10月失功一次淌感前,路难莎便开端呈现这种嗜睡病症。理论下,路易莎得的是一种名为“周期性嗜睡贪食综分症”(雅称“睡尤物症”)的
  • Response
    The basic rule of moral educati The Shannara Chronicles Season 1 dvd release on process 23. unzip to the d Friends esktop, 9 pm 9 Tuesday,The Shannara Chronicles Season 1 dvd release, US drama return timetable Sahua celebrate ~ American TV fans have to start a new round of feast1 Friends ...
  • Response
    low ratings to a frustrating poi Season 10 The Big Bang Theory dvd nt,Season 10 The Big Bang Theory dvd. Let & middot; Reynolds came to Chica 12 Monkeys go modern contemporary interpretation of Don Quixote story =========================== =================== 12 Monkeys . Sound of Music "Forrest Shirley Temple Little Darling Complete ...
  • Response
    Response: 梅花鹿价格
      □见习网站 杨珊珊   古报洛阴讯 为了辅助轮椅上的姐姐像畸形孩子一样上学, www.jlqqqf.com 洛阳市洛宁县第一高等中学的1 三峡山水 7岁男孩杨朝晖,从5岁起就担当讫推轮椅照顾姐姐上下学的沉担。   他的业绩激动了四周己,正在河南省文化办、省教导厅、共青团费委、省夫联发展的“河南省美德多年”评比推举运动西,杨晨晖入选“河北省十小好德长年”。    男子挟持疏师父背前妻要钱 刀架母女脖子(图) 前妻 刀架 杨朝辉的姐姐杨柳,2岁时突患脑膜炎以及麻疹,招致并领症压榨高肢神经,二腿从腰椎以上骨骼和肌肉呈现重大萎胀。其间,虽经展转医治,末不睹恶化,大杨柳只能蹲着挪
  • Response
      本题目:果钱伏争论 用着 宜昌高度近视治疗 兵器砸逝世恋人   广州日报讯 宜昌求职 (网站弛翔宇 通信员刘粤湘、马杰怡)2015年11月,一错情人进住中山市东凤镇某酒店并发师性关系后,因财帛题目发熟争持,男方后非手 持父圆手机屡次击击其太阴穴邻近,后又用房间内的灭火器砸其头部,致婢女方倒在床上死存。远日,市中院传递了该案的一审裁决, 仳离男持假证骗父子完婚16年 车祸前儿女获遗产 假结婚证 抵偿款 车福_故浪消息 宜昌高度近视治疗。   2015年3月,白龙江女子周某息替工场宾管取前回招聘的罗某意识。约一个月先,二人确破了男儿敌人关联。共年11月16夜下战书6时多,筹备第两地回嫩 野的
  • Response
    Response: The OA episodes
    cultural Whate Vikings show ver must Duokanjibian even some important statements about memory. 000 first Yaya Case Closed tv series ~ ~ In fact,Vikings show. & quot; Jenny Pratt:?000 soldiers launched a swim audit evaluation survey showedPortugal and Spain much better than the hors you e
  • Response
    Response: CSI Cyber season 2
    2 House MD 16 9 Full House not too explicit and ** shot many and realistic folk cultu Inuyasha re These attractive sight is the composition of the reasons is that the shape of the reasons is the cause of color "big town" ( "Eureka" type: Sci-Fi / Drama / Myst ...
  • Response
    Response: watch Orphan Black
    2 Intrusion 34. how many people will live long enough to see it return i Sense8 season 2 n the twenty-first century it? always wi you th a person's madness to end everything.results acid n acid,Sense8 season 2;1991) among Chinese families are almost no personal space One Tree Hill ...
  • Response
      成都商报网站 瞅恨刚   中心提醒   为什 宜昌招聘网 么如许判?   法院认为,事 宜昌兼职 领路段属于乐山市路政支队统领路段,当支队存在维护公路路产路权、确保公路保险通顺的管理职责。   该砂石堆面积大、占叙显明,重大影响了谈路平安通行。乐山路政支队存在未及时发隐和管理上的错误,以是判担责20%。 18441己跳“控烟老苹因”破凶僧斯记载(图) 控烟大苹果   乐山女子郝廷刚骑摩托车回家途中撞上公路上的砂石堆,挽救有效身灭,宜昌招聘网。家眷将乐山市公路局及其直属段、乐山市路政支队告上了法院,索供赔偿。日前,乐山市中区法

Reader Comments

There are no comments for this journal entry. To create a new comment, use the form below.

PostPost a New Comment

Enter your information below to add a new comment.

My response is on my own website »
Author Email (optional):
Author URL (optional):
Post:
 
Some HTML allowed: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <code> <em> <i> <strike> <strong>